Education: B.A., Rutgers University, 1969. J.D., University of Memphis, 1974.
Affiliations: American Bar Association, American Immigration Lawyers Association, Tennessee Bar Association and Memphis Bar Association. Admissions: U.S. Supreme Court, 1979. Tennessee Supreme Court, 1974. U.S. Court of Appeals, Sixth (1983) and Eighth (1980) Circuits, U.S. Court of International Trade 1974.