Joseph became the first African-American elected to the highest court of a state since Reconstruction when Governor Reuben Askew appointed him to the Florida Supreme Court in 1975. He continued to serve on that court after a successful statewide election in 1976. After a career as a civil rights lawyer in Florida, he served as Chief Assistant United States Attorney and Conscientious Objector Hearing Officer for the Department of Justice and as a full time United States Magistrate Judge, all in the Middle District of Florida.
Joseph served as the Chief Judge of the federal three judge court that drew the Florida legislative reapportionment plans in 1980 and in 1990. After leaving the bench in 1999, he led the litigation team in both the state and federal litigation related to the legislative reapportionment of 2000. In 2005, because of his experience in Florida, the federal three judge court of Georgia appointed him to aid the court in drawing the redistricting plans for the Georgia House and Senate.
In 2005, the National Bar Association inducted Joseph into its Hall of Fame in recognition of more than 40 years of dedication to the cause of justice and equality before the Courts of the United States of America, and on behalf of the African-American community. The American Bar Association Commission on Racial and Ethnic Diversity in the Profession awarded him the Spirit of Excellence Award, which is presented annually to exceptional lawyers who have made significant contributions to the promotion of racial and ethnic diversity within the legal profession.